Space4SDG2: Zero Hunger
Published by- Joy Agrawal on 27/05/2021
How does this work?
Tech giants from google to AWS to Microsoft are developing a tool known as Artemis which is a machine learning model which ranges from analysing data from satellites to mobile phones and to social media. Reasons for famine range from crop failure to climatic reaons and also inflation and other social reasons. Artemis uses the data from the various sources to understand the dynamics of inflation, general income, sentiment analysis and majorly satellite imagery analyse the weather and crop status to guage the possiblity of a famine. Detection of the graph tipping towards a famine as detected by Artemis shall trigger the Famine Action Mechanism and in turn activating the financial aid mechanism. Role of space technology is to monitor crop health and also predict weather changes so necessary measures can be taken to protect the harvest. This one is more sophisticated version through collaboration of these companies of the Famine Early Warning System by United States of America International Development. This uses satellite imagery and government available data sets but the new version that is Artemis uses everything from sentinments of people to satellite imagery to predict climate and also government data through the partnership between private tech giants and UN organisations and the World Bank. Also this system is limited to certain areas. Artemis and FAM are supposed to be internationally governed mechanisms for international prediction.
Water has a distictive signature when seen through a Synthetic Aperature Radar which emits microwaves and recieves them after reflection from the surface of Earth to analyse the terrain that is plot the points in a 3D space. Water till a certain extent absorbs these microwaves thus a dark patch is seen where there is water. SAR emits millions of individual rays every second at different angles, this can tear through the forestry and reflect back, this is why this is used to identify hidden water bodies or "rivulets". These hidden water bodies can be used for identifying water bodies and map out the water bodies which can be used to create canals for farmlands where there was no known water body and dependent on rains especially in a country like India.
Irrigation Map from Satellite Remote Sensing